The steppe areas have about twice the annual precipitation found in the arid zones, but evaporation exceeds precipitation in both zones, which therefore remain treeless. [97][98][103] Frost is rarely intense, nor prolonged, and does not occur in some years. The highest Andean peaks have permanent snow and ice cover. Salta / Argentinien", "Klimatafel von La Rioja, Prov. [3][4] Argentina possesses a wide variety of climatic regions ranging from subtropical in the north to subantarctic in the far south. [58]:56, The mean annual temperatures in the Quebrada de Humahuaca valley range from 12.0 to 14.1 °C (53.6 to 57.4 °F), depending on altitude. [97][6] In many places precipitation, which mostly occurs in the form of convective thunderstorms, is high during summer. The range of mean temperatures for summer months (December to February) is about 72–75 °F (22–24 °C), whereas that for winter months (June to August) is about 46–55 °F (8–13 °C). To further illustrate this point, Argentina is a country with stunningly varied regions. This is caused by a longitudinal rain shadow zone (created when air masses lose their moisture while passing over high mountains) on the eastern side of the Andes. These divisions became deeply rooted in the politics of the country. The tree heights diminish above 7,000 feet (2,100 metres), and the growth becomes more like that of a cloud forest, with myrtles and laurels predominating. Between winter storms, tropical air masses make incursions southward and bring mild relief from the damp cold. [52][53][55] The movement of moist air into the region during summer results in very high precipitation. [123][124] For example, while mean annual precipitation is more 1,000 mm (39 in) at the Andean foothills, in less than 100 km (62 mi) to the east, precipitation decreases to 200 mm (8 in). Low scrub vegetation and green grass steppe alternate south of Comodoro Rivadavia to the tip of the continent. [53], The atmospheric circulation is controlled by the two semi–permanent South Atlantic and South Pacific highs,[54]:18 and the Chaco Low. The variety of geographical regions in Argentina, are a determining factor of the different types of climates. According to the prevailing climate, the country is divided into mild, sub-tropical and arid regions. [21][53][54]:20[56] The Chaco Low attracts air masses from the South Pacific High, creating a dry and cold wind, particularly during winter. [52][54]:34 Although easterly winds are rare in the Puna region, they bring 88%–96% of the area's precipitation. Patagonia, semiarid scrub plateau that covers nearly all of the southern portion of mainland Argentina. Precipitation decreases from east to west in the Chaco region because eastern areas are more influenced by moist air from the Atlantic Ocean than the west, resulting in the vegetation transitioning from forests and marshes to shrubs. 7 August 2020. Argentina's climate ranges from the great heat and extensive rains of the subtropical Chaco in the north, through to the pleasant climate of the central Pampas, and the sub-Antarctic cold of the Patagonian Sea in the south. [123][121] South of 52oS, the Andes are lower in elevation, reducing the rain shadow effect in Tierra del Fuego Province, allowing forests to thrive on the Atlantic coast. Of particular note are the numerous marine mammals—especially whales, elephant seals, and sea lions—that are found in its waters. [12][50], The Patagonian climate is classified as arid to semi-arid and temperate to cool temperate. [79] In wet years, easterly winds caused by the subtropical South Atlantic High are stronger, which causes more moisture to flow towards this region; during the dry years, these winds are weaker. Tropical air masses only occasionally invade the provinces of Formosa and Misiones in the extreme north. [40] As such, most of Mendoza and San Juan Provinces receive the lowest annual precipitation, with mean summer precipitation averaging less than 100 mm (4 in) and in rare cases, no summer rainfall. [120]:72[115] With the exception of certain areas such as Puerto Blest, no major towns receive more than 1,000 mm (39 in) of precipitation a year. [88][90][91] As such, the temperature may rise as much as 20 °C (36 °F) in a few hours, with humidity approaching 0% during a Zonda wind event. [121] Northern areas are sunnier (50% possible sunshine)[note 5] than the southern parts of the region such as western Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego Provinces (less than 40% possible sunshine). [52] Consequently, vegetation differs within these different climate types. [9] Mean evapotranspiration ranges from 550 to 750 mm (22 to 30 in), which decreases from northeast to southwest. The humid lowlands of eastern Argentina, especially along the rivers of the Rio de la Plata system, resemble the Mississippi Valley. [117], Patagonia is located between the subtropical high pressure belt, and the subpolar low pressure zone, meaning it is exposed to westerly winds that are strong, since south of 40o S, there is little land to block these winds. [9] These snowfall events can result in strong snow storms. [121] Further south in Tierra del Fuego Province, absolute maximum temperatures do not exceed 30 °C (86 °F), while in the southernmost islands, they do not exceed 20 °C (68 °F). Aerial views of the Pampas, east-central Argentina. [14] However, all claims are suspended by the Antarctic Treaty System, of which Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member. In climate, size, and topography, Argentina can be compared with the portion of the U.S. between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, although the North American region has colder winters. The high-elevation, cold climatic phenomenon in Argentina is sometimes referred to as tundra climate and, in even colder mountaintop areas, as polar. [121] During summer, the South Pacific High migrates southward, preventing the passage of fronts, and cyclones that can cause precipitation to occur, resulting in lower precipitation during this time of the year. [23]:32[25] Summer (December–February) is the most humid season, with precipitation ranging from 300 to 450 mm (12 to 18 in). [54]:20 Most of the precipitation comes from the east since the Andes block most moisture from the Pacific Ocean. Due to the warmer temperatures the best time for traveling is in January. Away from the coast, areas on the plateaus have large daily and annual temperature ranges. Most of the arid region is subjected to strong winds that carry abrasive sand and dust. The Chaco region in the center-north, despite being relatively homogeneous in terms of precipitation and temperature, is the warmest region in Argentina, and one of the few natural areas in the world located between tropical and temperate latitudes that is not a desert. [57] Without the Andes, the climate of northwest Argentina would have been arid and resembled that of northern Chile. Argentina possesses some of the world's tallest mountains, expansive deserts, and impressive waterfalls, with the diversity of the land ranging from wild, remote areas in southern Patagonia to the bustling metropolis of Buenos Aires in the north. In the Gran Chaco were the Guaycuruan-speaking peoples, among others. [23]:85, The Chaco region is the hottest in Argentina, with a mean annual temperature of 23 °C (73 °F). Precipitation is moderate to light throughout most of the country, with the driest areas in the far northwest and in the southern part of Patagonia. Vegetation includes species of mimosa and acacia, and there is a smattering of cactus. [121] In northern Río Negro Province and eastern Neuquén Province, mean annual precipitation is around 300 mm (12 in) while south of 50oS, precipitation increases southwards, reaching up to 600 to 800 mm (24 to 31 in). [100] Temperatures are usually mild during the day and cold during the night. One defining characteristic is the strong winds from the west which blow year-round, lowering the perception of temperature (wind chill), while being a factor in keeping the region arid by favouring evaporation. [121] Generally, mean annual temperatures vary more with altitude than with latitude since the temperature gradient for latitude is relatively moderate owing to ocean currents. [79][80] More than 85% of the annual rainfall occurs from October to March, which constitutes the warm season. Argentina’s fauna and flora vary widely from the country’s mountainous zones to its dry and humid plains and its subpolar regions. [20][25] Eastern areas receive more precipitation than western areas since they are more influenced by moist air from the Atlantic Ocean. The disputed Falkland Islands is a United Kingdom Overseas Territory, but is claimed by Argentina. Argentina has been producing wine since the mid 16th century. [66][86] July temperatures range from 7 to 8 °C (45 to 47 °F). [20][23]:63 Winters are mild and brief, with mean temperatures in July ranging from 16 °C (61 °F) in the northern parts to 14 °C (57 °F) in the southernmost parts. Argentina - Argentina - Climate: Argentina lies almost entirely within the temperate zone of the Southern Hemisphere, unlike the rest of the continent to the north, which lies within the tropics. Patagonia (Spanish pronunciation: [pataˈɣonja]) is a sparsely populated region at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.The region comprises the southern section of the Andes Mountains, lakes, fjords, and glaciers in the west and deserts, tablelands and steppes to the east. Nothing remains outside the possibilities offered by the types of climate in Argentina. The new government has mainly focused its policy efforts on addressing the economic crisis that pre-dates the pandemic but has been exacerbated by it, putting further climate … Some 90 miles (150 km) west of the Paraná River, a few massive trees begin to appear. [119][121] Most of the moisture is dropped on the Chilean side, resulting in abundant precipitation, while in much of the Argentine side, the air warms adiabatically and becomes drier as it descends. [51] Owing to its rugged topography, the region is climatically diverse, depending on the altitude, temperature, and distribution of precipitation. Argentina Agricultural crop by climate areas Crops by climatic zone. Argentina's mountainous and foothill regions, including the Andes, La Rioja and San Juan, all feature a dry climate, which turns cold and windy in the Patagonian Andes. [53] The north–south orientation of the mountains, which increase in altitude to the west,[52] and a discontinuous topography, creates valleys with regions of relatively high orographic precipitation in the west and drier regions in east. Lying between those is the Pampas region, which features a mild and humid climate. The climate in Argentina is very varied. Lying between those is the Pampas region, featuring a mild and humid climate. [23]:40, Mean annual temperatures range from 17 °C (63 °F) in the south to 21 °C (70 °F) in the north. Argentinien, nach Brasilien zweitgrößtes Land Südamerikas, hat eine enorme Nord-Süd-Ausdehnung von circa 3.700 Kilometern.Die Ost-West-Ausdehnung beträgt immerhin rund 1.400 Kilometer. Northern parts of the country[note 2] are characterized by hot, humid summers with mild, drier winters, and highly seasonal precipitation. [66][86] The average temperature in January is 24 °C (75 °F) in most of the region. › Overview: Climate in Argentina [121] Winters have a more uniform temperature distribution. [100] Maritime polar air from the south produces the cool pampero winds, while warm humid tropical air from the north produces sultry nortes – a gentle wind usually from the northeast formed by trade winds, and the South Atlantic High that brings cloudy, hot, and humid weather and is responsible for bringing heat waves. In Patagonia the largest group was the Tehuelche, and on Tierra del Fuego the Ona. Argentina has been producing wine since the mid 16th century. [52] Snowfall is rare, averaging less than five days of snow per year. Climate change in Argentina is predicted to have significant effects on the living conditions in Argentina. Substantial numbers also came from France, Poland, Russia, Germany, and Great Britain. Argentina’s varied geography can be grouped into four major regions: the Andes, the North, the Pampas, and Patagonia. [119] Most precipitation events are light; each event usually results in less than 5 mm (0.2 in). [21][52] Southern parts of the region are influenced by cold fronts travelling northward. With its continental climate favoring grape growing, the Mendoza region is responsible for producing over 80% of total wine production in Argentina. [119] In general, mountainous areas are the cloudiest, and coastal areas are cloudier than inland areas. [24] During heat waves, temperatures can exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in the summer months, while in the winter months, cold air masses from the south can push temperatures below freezing, causing frost. Windstorms (pamperos) with thunder, lightning, and hail are common. [28][100], Chubut, Neuquén, Río Negro, Santa Cruz, and Tierra del Fuego are the provinces that make up Patagonia. [121] Because of this, these cold fronts do not result in the cold being intense since they are moderated as they pass over the surrounding oceans. Covering an area of 2,780,400 (1,073,500 sq mi), Argentina is the world's 8th largest country, the 2nd largest country in South America, and the 4th largest country in the Americas. Argentina Climate Map page, view Argentina political, physical, country maps, satellite images photos and where is Argentina location in World map. Among these were the Diaguita of the Andean Northwest, a town-dwelling agricultural people who were forced into labour after they were conquered. [56][67] In contrast, during a La Niña year, there is enhanced easterly moisture transport, resulting in a more intense rainy season. Mendoza lies the heart of Argentina’s wine country. Mendoza is Argentina’s most famous and most important wine region, home to more than 1200 wineries (known as bodegas locally) and responsible for the vast majority of all wine produced in the country. Due to its vast size and range of altitudes, Argentina possesses a wide variety of climatic regions, ranging from the hot subtropical region in the north to the cold subantarctic in the far south. In climate, size, and topography, Argentina can be compared with the portion of the U.S. between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, although the North American region has colder winters. [119][124] Precipitation decreases steeply from west to east, ranging from 4,000 mm (160 in) in the west on the Andean foothills at 41oS, to 150 mm (6 in) in the central plateaus. [80] The region is characterized by a large diurnal range with very hot temperatures during the day followed by cold nights. [109] Dull, grey, and damp weather characterize winters in the Pampas. This climate is considered to be Cfa according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Wildlife in the region includes now rare guanacos and rheas, as well as eagles and herons, the Patagonian cavy (mará) and other burrowing rodents, mountain cats and pumas, and various poisonous snakes. Common trees are the quebracho, the urunday, and the guayacán, used for tannin and lumber. [65]:16, The Cuyo region includes the provinces of Mendoza, San Juan, and San Luis. [21]:12 Water deficiencies and extended periods of drought are uncommon, and much of the region has a positive water balance (i.e. Mesopotamia is a habitat for jaguars, monkeys, deer, tapirs, peccaries, many snake varieties, and numerous birds, notably toucans and hummingbirds, as well as stingless bees. [96] It is subdivided into two parts: the humid Pampas to the east, and the dry/semi–arid Pampas to the west. Rosario is a city with a significant rainfall. Mendoza lies the heart of Argentina’s wine country. Dull, gray days and damp weather characterize this season, especially in the Pampas. Average temperatures in summer in Argentina can differ quite dramatically depending upon whether you’re in the north or the south of this South American country. Written by Gloria Ogunbor. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Covering a large area, there are a surprising amount of micro-climates and different altitudes that result in a variety of wines. Many regions have different, often contrasting, microclimates. [125][131] Towards the south, where land masses are narrow, the Pacific Ocean influences coastal areas in addition to the Atlantic Ocean, ensuring that the cold is neither prolonged nor intense. Several months of the year it is warm to hot at temperatures continuously above 25 degrees centigrade, sometimes up to 32 degrees. The region is the land of the guanaco and its near relatives, the llama, alpaca, and vicuña. A local phenomenon near the southern tip of the continent is species of parrots and other birds more commonly associated with the tropics than with Patagonia. Toggle navigation. [20] Eastern areas are more strongly influenced by maritime climate than western areas, leading to a smaller thermal amplitude (difference between average high and average low temperatures). [12], This region's land is appropriate for agricultural and livestock activities. Climate and Weather in Argentina in June. [52], The Andes are the principal factor that determines the precipitation/rainfall regime (seasonal distribution of rainfall). The rain shadow area has a central arid (desert) core rimmed by semiarid, or steppe, conditions. [121] Snowfall occurs on 5 to 20 days per year, mainly in the west and south. The weather in the Pampas is variable due to the contrasting air masses and frontal storms that impact the region. [66], Most of the region receives less than 200 mm (8 in) of precipitation per year, although some areas can receive less than 100 mm (4 in). Palm savanna in the eastern Chaco Central, near Formosa, northeastern Argentina. a warmer climate in Argentina. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, The World Meteorological Organization Station ID for Buenos Aires Observatorio is 87585, "Updated world map of the Köppen−Geiger climate classification", "Arid and semi–arid rangelands: two thirds of Argentina", "Climate change in Argentina: trends, projections, impacts and adaptation", "About South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands", "Sintesis Abarcativas–Comparativas Fisico Ambientales y Macroscoioeconomicas", "Vulnerabilidad de los Recursos Hídricos en el Litoral–Mesopotamia–Tomo I", "Provincia de Corrientes–Clima Y Metéorologia", "Provincia de Entre Rios–Clima Y Metéorologia", "Provincia de Misiones–Clima Y Metéorologia", "Estadísticas Climatológicas Normales - período 1981–2010", "Klimatafel von Posadas, Prov. Flightless rheas still inhabit the Pampas, but guanacos are no longer found there. For when you decide to visit, we’ve put together this brief guide to Argentina’s top five wine regions. The children of immigrants were quick to identify themselves as Argentines, so the people were not divided into antagonistic ethnic groups. The Andean region extends some 2,300 miles (3,700 km) along the western edge of the country from Bolivia to southern Patagonia, forming most of the natural boundary with Chile. The climate in Argentina Average daytime and nighttime temperatures All climatic diagrams of this page are taken from the collected data from 113 measuring stations in Argentina. In the Pampa, the average annual rainfall varies between 1,000 mm in the east, and 500 mm in the west towards the Andes, where there is a temperate steppe climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. [21][53][54]:20[56] With the Andes blocking most rain bearing clouds from the Pacific Ocean, along with atmospheric circulation patterns unfavourable for rain, this results in a dry season during winter. The vegetation of the Chaco becomes increasingly lush toward the east. [72] Temperatures can exceed 40 °C (104 °F) during the summer, particularly in the central valley of Catamarca (Valle Central de Catamarca) and the valley of La Rioja Capital which lie at lower altitudes. The so-called mistol (jujube) forest thrives above 1,650 feet (500 metres), although giant cedars and some other tree species disappear above 3,300 feet (1,000 metres). [26][27][29] However, such cold fronts are brief, and are less intense than in areas further south or at higher altitudes. Nearly unattractive for tourists are the cold months from May to September. The indigenous, plantlike ombu tree (Phytolacca dioica) is prized for the shade it provides but is of no commercial value. [42] The eastern part of the region receives just enough precipitation to have a positive water balance. Regions of Argentina. Rio Negro is one of the coldest regions in Argentina with an average daily high temperature of only 20 degrees centigrade. [97] The climate of the Pampas is temperate and humid with no dry season, featuring hot summers and mild winters (Cfa/Cfb according to the Köppen climate classification). Each region contains the following departments. [56], Temperatures in northwest Argentina vary by altitude. In 1999 the peninsula was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. [65]:10[69][70] In both the Quebrada de Humahuaca and Calchaquí valleys, winters are cold with frosts that can occur between March and September. Southeast of the Andean region described above, xerophytic (drought-tolerant) scrub forests, called monte, and intervening grasslands spread across the Pampean Sierras. Buenos Aires / Argentinien", "The Climate of Patagonia: general patterns and controls on biotic processes", "Bariloche Aero Climate Normals 1961–1990", "Provincia de Neuquen – Clima Y Meteorologia: Datos Meteorologicos Y Pluviometicos", "Provincia de Chubut – Clima Y Meteorologia: Datos Meteorologicos Y Pluviometicos", "Valores Medios de Temperature y Precipitación-Chubut: Paso de Indios", "Cuadro 13: Sumas Mensuales y Anuales de las Horas de Sol Efectivas y Porcentaje de los Totales de Horas de Sol", "World Weather Information Service – Ushuaia", "Ushuaia AERO I Climate Normals 1961–1990", "Provincia de Tierra del Fuego – Clima Y Meteorologia: Datos Meteorologicos Y Pluviometicos", "Chapter 13: Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay", "Chapter 3: The Physical Geography of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego", "Chapter 17: Late Quaternary Vegetation and Climate of Patagonia", "The evolution of Patagonian climate and vegetation from the Mesozoic to the present", "Late Paleozoic paleoclimatology of central west Argentina", "The climate of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay", Climatic Atlas from Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, Climatic Atlas from Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria,, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source 1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun and humidity), Source 2: Secretaria de Mineria (sun 1961–1990), Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun 1961–1990), Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990), Source: Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Source 1: Servicio Meteorólogico Nacional, Source 2: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (precipitation days 1961–1990), Source 1: World Meteorological Organization, This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 03:44. [38] The interaction between the South Atlantic High and the Chaco Low generates a pressure gradient that brings moist air from the east and northeast to eastern coastal and central regions of Argentina. [128] Absolute minimum temperatures are more than −15 °C (5 °F) in coastal areas, while in the central Patagonian plateaus, they can reach below −20 °C (−4 °F).[121]. › Overview: Climate in Argentina › Duration of daylight and sunshine in Argentina Argentina’s wine regions produce grapes with distinct flavor, quality and aroma. Argentina Climate Map page, view Argentina political, physical, country maps, satellite images photos and where is Argentina location in World map. More like neighboring Bolivia and Peru in terms of culture, the Northwest region of Argentina is worlds away from the European stylings of Buenos Aires. The Pampas occupy a transitional area between high summer temperatures to the north and cooler summers to the south. In total, Argentina is home to nearly 300 protected areas, which include eleven internationally significant wetlands and ten different biosphere reserves. [55], The area further west is the Puna region, a plateau with an average altitude of 3,900 m (12,800 ft) that is mostly a desert due to the easterly winds being blocked by the Andes and the northwest extension of the Sierras Pampeanas. [120]:72 The snow line ranges from an altitude of 2,500 m (8,202 ft) in the north to 1,800 m (5,906 ft) above sea level in the south. [103] Winters are drier in most places due to weaker easterly winds, and stronger southerly winds, which prevent moist air from coming in. British capital and management, in particular, built railroads and created the meat-processing industry; the British also left a relatively small but influential community. Coarse bunchgrasses are common in the dry steppe, which also supports dense scrub forests intermixed with prickly pear, barrel, and many other types of cactus. [82][83][84] In the Cuyo region, annual precipitation is highly variable from year to year and appears to follow a cycle between dry and wet years in periods of about 2, 4–5, 6–8, and 16–22 years. The provinces in Argentina fall under the country's seven major geographical regions: Northwest, Mesopotamia, Gran Chaco, Sierras Pampeanas, Cuyo, Pampas, and Patagonia. [55] At the highest altitudes, westerly winds from the Pacific Ocean can penetrate during the winter months, leading to snowstorms. Another Pampas Indian tribe was the Querandí, who inhabited the region of Buenos Aires. The influence of the Andes, in conjunction with general circulation patterns, generates one of the strongest precipitation gradients (rate of change in mean annual precipitation in relation to a particular location) in the world, decreasing rapidly to the east. [100] Heat waves that can bring temperatures in the 36 to 40 °C (97 to 104 °F) range for a few days. [20][21]:12[25] The mean January temperature throughout most of the region is 25 °C (77 °F) except in the uplands of Misiones Province where they are lower owing to its higher elevation. Argentina has seven regions. Because of Argentina's long length, it is divided into four main regions: the northern subtropical woodlands and swamps; the heavily wooded slopes of the Andes Mountains in the west; the far south, semiarid and cold Patagonian Plateau; and the temperate region surrounding Buenos Aires. Patagonia, in the south, is mostly arid or semi–arid except in the extreme west where abundant precipitation supports dense forest coverage, glaciers, and permanent snowfields. [29][30] Spring (September–November) is similar to fall with a mean precipitation of 340 mm (13 in). [38] By contrast, the western parts of the region have a negative water balance (the potential evapotranspiration exceeds the precipitation) owing to lower precipitation. [128], Temperatures are relatively cold for its latitude due to the cold Malvinas Current and the high altitude. So if you have plans to to travel or relocate to Argentina someday, here the … Daher kann auch nicht von einem einheitlichen, bestimmenden Klima in Argentinien gesprochen werden. [121] The high precipitation in the Andes in this region supports glaciers and permanent snowfields. [57] to the west For example, in the Lerma Valley, which is surrounded by tall mountains, (only the northeastern part of the valley is surrounded by shorter mountains), precipitation ranges from 695 mm (27 in) in Salta to 1,395 mm (55 in) in San Lorenzo, just 11 km (6.8 mi) away. In total, Argentina is home to nearly 300 protected areas, which include eleven internationally significant wetlands and ten different biosphere reserves. [11], It has an arid or semi-arid climate. [23]:38–39 Winter (June–August) is the driest season, with a mean precipitation of 110 mm (4.3 in) throughout the region. Both animals are fleet-footed, which is probably why the Indians developed the bola, a device consisting of weights on a short rope thrown to trip the animals. [103] Places in the east receive rainfall throughout autumn, whereas in the west it quickly becomes very dry. [20] It lies between the Uruguay and Paraná rivers, which serve as natural borders for the region. The most notable wine regions of Argentina are Mendoza, where nearly all the major wineries are concentrated. [121] Mean annual wind speeds range between 15 to 22 km/h (9 to 14 mph), although gusts of over 100 km/h (62 mph) are common.

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